On Human Stupidity


no hurry, no pause.


The Second Law of Stupidity

The probability that a certain person be stupid is independent of any characteristic of that person.

Key Takeaways

The evidence that education has nothing to do with the probability σ was provided by experiments carried out in a large number of universities all over the world. Cipolla (2019, p. 17)

It is well known that Nature manages, rather mysteriously, to keep constant the relative frequency of certain natural phenomena. In order to achieve it Nature must operate with large numbers.


Cipolla, C. M. (2019). The Basic Laws of Human Stupidity.